The project audio visual crew properly document all events and activities. The team will document stories and events. The monitoring and documentation expert will analyze the data and recommend stories and best practices. At the end of the project a documentary film will be produced that shows the campaign history, lessons learned.

Factors associated with Fertility 

  • There is high number of desire for children: the mean of ideal desired number of children was 5.2. Sons are preferred than daughters. The mean desired number of boys and girls was 2.5 and 2.2 respectively.
  • Demand for FP use increases with educational status of women
  • The desire to have more children was the popular reason for discontinuation of family planning use followed by fear of side effect
  • Number of children increase as household wealth increase
  • Number of children a women would have decreases with increase in age at first marriage

Misconceptions about FP use

  • 1 in every 3 women believe that using of contraceptive can results in infertility
  • Misconception of FP is common (use of implant &depo that make the women infertile and mad); however it is changing overtime (Amhara)
  • Common misconception about FP (causes infertility, hypertension, unusual weight gain, & headache….women) (High pain, back pain and severe headache. Sometimes, when she stops using FP she may not become pregnant….men )
  • Religious related misconception, lack of awareness; side effects were the most frequently reported de-motivating factors. Other de-motivating factor was for the reason that the men have more than one wife and because they compete with each other to have many children, the women may not accept using FP because they become jea

Source of FP Information

  • The preferable time for radio messages on weekends in the evening ( for women)
  • Health center is the major source of FP service in Amhara and Somali while health post is the major source of FP service in Oromia

Men Involvement and Gender Role

  • 20% of men participants agreed the perception that use of family planning by women without their husbands consent is considered as promiscuous. 20% agrees that attending family planning clinic is only an issue of women but not men.
  • Over 99% of the male respondents have heard any method of family planning ( awareness about FP is universal among men
  • Men’s knowledge of women fertile period is low (11.3 in Amhara, 22.1 Oromia and 2.8% in Somali regions)
  • Husbands have negative attitude towards contraceptive use insisting that ‘a child will grow by its destiny’ also using FP considered as mistrust of relationship
  • Priests or religious leaders usually prohibited their wives and the religion followers from using FP, because they said, the use of FP contradicts with the religion as stated in holy bible. “...God said unto them, be fruitful and multiply; and replenish the earth, and subdue it”.
  • Considering child as an asset, religion, fear of side effects, unjustified rumors (myth) were mentioned by participants as hindering factors for FP use

Statement of the problem

Ethiopia is a large and diverse country with a population of over 93 million that is growing at 2.5% yearly[i]. It is a country of diverse economic, social and cultural backgrounds. Ethiopia has made important progress towards improving the health status of its population especially during the last two decades. Health service coverage has improved and health indicators have shown steady progress compared to low starting levels, including in such key indicators as child mortality, infant mortality, total fertility, and family planning utilization.

Trends in fertility since the early 2000s can be examined by observing a time series of estimates produced from demographic surveys conducted in Ethiopia over the last 16 years, beginning with the 2000 EDHS. The TFR has declined from 5.5 children per woman in 2000, to 5.4 children per woman in 2005, to 4.8 children per woman in 2011, and to 4.6 children per woman in 2016. However, fertility is notably higher among rural women than urban women. On average, rural women will give birth tonearly three more children during their reproductive years than urban women (5.2 versus 2.3 children per woman)[ii].

Teenage pregnancy and child birth is still high in Ethiopia.  The 2016 EDHS indicated that 13 percent of women age 15-19 in Ethiopia have begun childbearing. Teenage pregnancy and child bearing is more common in rural than in urban areas (15 versus 5 percent, respectively). The teenage pregnancy and child bearing rates also varies across region (18.7% in Somali, 17.0% in Oromia and 8.3% in Amhara Regions)[iii]

According to recently released information of Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey report of the Central Statistical Agency (EMDHS, 2016) use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has remarkably increased from a mere 8% for the whole country to a current level of 36% (EMDHS, 2016). By region contraceptive prevalence rate significantly varies across regions. The CPR in     Somali, Amhara and Oromia Regions is 1.5%, 47.3% and 28.6% respectively

The EDHS 2016 key indicator report shows that 22 percent of currently married women have an unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia. Unmet need for family planning is 28.9% in Oromia, 17.4% in Amhara and 12.6% in Somali Regions. These women who want to use safe and effective family planning methods, but are unable to do so because they lack access to information and services or the support of their husbands and communities. The total demand for family planning in these regions ranges from 64.7% in Amhara, 57.5% in Oromia and 14.1% in Somali.

Various literatures indicated that sexual and reproductive health service seeking behavior among men is very low while women and girls showed better health seeking behavior albeit the influence from the wider community is still the hurdle particularly in Somali region. Religious beliefs are one of the influential factors on access to and use of services in Somali and other pastoral areas. The cultural background of the women and powerlessness harm their health directly by limiting their access to the services[iv].

The use of family planning service and reproductive health seeking behavior greatly influenced by women’s education and household wealth. The proposed campaigns support the notion of “Small, Happy and Prosperous Family” and educate the target communities on the available health services and the benefits of family planning. The campaigns also promotes open discussion on family planning issues among family and the community in order enhance health seeking behavior of women and girls to increase family planning

The demographic health surveys conducted in Ethiopia highlighted the demand‐– side gaps for family planning uptake include concerns regarding side effects of modern methods, limited awareness of method or choice (what, where and when to access methods), and desire for large families especially among men. Fear of side effects and health concerns, are the most common reason for not using family planning in project target regions.

Although mass media has been instrumental in health communication, it has not been used to the maximum to keep the general public and targeted audiences well informed about health issues in Ethiopia.  Furthermore, the PMA 2014 report revealed that inequalities of health information through media may exist between rural and urban areas due to the extent of media exposure as radios were not widely used in rural areas as oppose to urban areas to disseminate FP message dissemination. The proposed project ultimately works towards reducing this gap through the serial drams which will be filled with stories with realistic characters and culturally sensitive and appropriate messages to contribute to population and reproductive health promotion in rural area in particular. To this end, integrated community outreach events will be organized in collaboration with regional health bureaus, woreda health offices and civil society organizations to reach rural women.

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